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Can architecture help us successfully respond to the COVID-19 crisis?

Can architecture help us successfully respond to the COVID-19 crisis?雅各布全球架构解决方案导演皮埃卢格蒙塔尼尼从历史上的课程中汲取课程,以考opebet专业版虑未来可能在店里举行辅助生活设施。

Architecture defines the environment in which we live; it is the natural extension of our bodies, originally meant to protect us from the rain, sun and wind. Consider how far we’ve come - for most of the last 5000+ years we did not have any electricity; most family activities were conducted in one main room; and shared bedrooms were common.

快进到2020年,我们的景观了with highly specialized building types with smart buildings and advanced laboratories. Given our progress in architecture and what we call “the built environment”, it begs the question, “Can today’s buildings defend us from the virus?”

答案是肯定的。

  • Yes, in the sense that self-isolating behaviors (which our modern living conditions mostly can accommodate) can slow the progress of viral spread. That’s why, according to the世界经济论坛, we reached 2.6 billion people in lockdown, or “stay at home” – a third of the world population.
  • No, because to date most of the virus victims are the elderly in assisted living conditions, which tend to be largely communal with caregivers’ interaction. (For instance, in Italy now in phase 2, 60% of all COVID-19-related deceased are elderly citizens residing in close living quarters; in the U.S. the data is still fluid with59% in the 75y+ age brackets

How can architecture help with the current crisis?

我们必须首先欣赏建筑创新在为人类提供最安全的建筑环境方面发挥了巨大作用。他们允许人类与过去的挑战相比,目前的大流行也不例外。战争,新技术,经济变化和流行病是主要的建筑破坏者,在建筑史上塑造了新的设计。例如,随着火炮的出现,城市不再用周围的墙壁建造。通过组装砖形状的拱形,屋顶和结构的跨度和尺寸在古罗马中增加,使得今天我仍然可以欣赏我的家人。

Architecture, too, has not been immune to the rapid technological accelerations we have seen disrupt other facets of modern life. In the last 50 years, we designed buildings with structural systems to withstand hurricanes and earthquakes. We have HVAC sensors capable of monitoring the environment and control automated valves, and pumps and fans to adjust the temperature, humidity and pressure of the air we breathe. We have lighting and low-voltage circuits fed by photovoltaic cells regulating illumination levels according to natural light and occupancy conditions. We have safety access points, and security alarms monitoring mission critical areas, recognizing human faces and metal objects; and waterless urinals, automatic sprinklers and xeriscape to save water. Some buildings are so advanced they can function outside any utility grid. The most sustainable even generate more electricity than they consume.

But what about a virus? Can architecture conceive of a smart environment for saving lives, of a building capable of protecting its occupants from a virus attack?

在Jacobs,我们正在与一个客户合作,只是这样的想法。我们的共同愿景是为垂直医疗城市,一个社区蔓延到50多个楼层,有医生,护士和老年人(一些需要援助,有些人)。郊区或未开发的地区,但在城市的核心,其他人可以接近餐馆,商店和文化中心,我们都希望在我们的退休期间享受。一个提供物理和精神上活跃的生活的地方,健康食品和获得预防性护理(所有这些都对长寿都很重要)

正如前CDC主任的Richard Jackson MD所例句,“......作为关节炎,肥胖和糖尿病患病率的增加,对于年长和残疾人(以及资源​​很少的年轻人)的社区来说,需求变得非常好,并为社会提供贡献不需要拥有一辆汽车。“

一个人可能会问它是否高密度社区对我们的衰老人口造成太多风险。“在美国,U.K.,西班牙和意大利的辅助生活空间中的所有Covid-19死亡人员怎么样?”为了回答这个问题,我们可能会问另一个:“不同的建筑风格可以挽救那些生命吗?”虽然答案并不完全确定,但我们所知道的是可以提供帮助的技术和创新工具。

我们的建筑已经编程用于紧急情况的快速行动。通过传感器检测到烟雾或火灾,灯光和声音警报警告乘员;出口灯亮起,提供语音说明;走廊门自动关闭;喷水灭火系统用不同的消防解决方案激活;opebet专业版烟雾阻尼器打开和电梯停止;建筑物管理系统称第一个受访者 - 全部没有人为干预。目标是在环境变得危险之前安全地疏散建筑物,最终在火灾下坍塌。

如果敌人不是火,但病毒?在烟雾和火灾之外,今天我们的传感器可以检测到许多其他东西,包括一氧化碳,硫化氢等致命气体。它们可以识别金属物体,指纹和视网膜,回答语音命令,并检查体温。我们检测到的所有内容都在二进制数据中转换,在LightSpeed中交换,分析,并用于编程操作。我们已经有自动驾驶汽车,人工智能将取代许多其他功能。期待在智能和连通建筑物中不久的发展。虽然我们没有传感器来检测病毒,但将来可能不会太远。

回到垂直医疗城市,我们要问 - 和回答 - 这个问题,“如果我们的50多个用于医疗保健服务和老化居民的建筑物可以在预定条件下自动将自己划分为隔间的问题?”我们今天可以通过空气加压从负面变化到积极条件,如激烈的护理单位所使用的。我们可以控制访问点来阻止访问者和交付,通过安全的访问路径来检查它们来检查点。(想象一下,如果在未来这样的技术中可能会发现有病毒的人,并引导个人远离潜在的弱势群体。)它可以监测居民,医生和护士的运动,以立即医疗干预;它可以使用CCTV摄像机来远程医疗;它可以设置干净和土路径以避免污染。

For the immediate risk that is COVID1-9, the most effective solution appears to be sheltering in place and physical distancing. Scientists and governments are now monitoring the effects of the countries in phase 2 where the population is progressively returning to social interaction. As we design for the future and with the needs of our vulnerable populations in mind, the solution does not have to be isolation nor more suburban sprawling. However, while architecture can help frame the problem and provide solutions, the result will be effective only in an inclusive and diverse environment, with contributions from public health professionals, planners, scientists, economists, engineers, developers and community stakeholders.

Pierluigi Montanini是Jacobs的架构解决方案的全球导演,并领导1,200+的团队opebet专业版创新和可持续的解决方案sacross the地球in various geographies and markets. Speaking of his team, Pierluigi says, “We are不同,我们看起来不同,我们来自各种各样的文化和专业背景。我们都分享相同激情for excellence in designwhich is fullyintegrated与其他学科,利益相关者,环境和社区。我们的客户和计划包括旧金山的科学和研究实验室;与日本,欧洲和美国学校的全球创新教育计划。一个国际屡获殊荣的医院,在悉尼郊区的悉尼郊区改造社区,城市振兴和与批量交通连接;曼彻斯特到丹佛的几个机场建筑项目,芝加哥到新加坡。皮埃鲁格是罗马大学罗马大学的一名注册建筑师,位于U.K.的注册建筑师,这是一个LEED认可的专业,他在学术和行业论坛中的国际讲座。

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